UV-Exposition, Risikowahrnehmung und Schutzverhalten

Psychologische Ansatzpunkte für die Verbesserung der Risikokommunikation im Bereich UV

Börner, Franziska Ursula

kassel university press, ISBN: 978-3-89958-546-9, 2010, 192 Pages

Zugl.: Kassel, Univ., Diss. 2010

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Content: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major preventable cause of skin cancer. Through numerous education campaigns, the negative health effects of over exposure to UV-light are widely known. Yet, this knowledge is not or only partly translated into adequate sun protective behaviour. To improve current risk communication strategies, the aim of this study was to explore UV-exposure and protection patterns for both intentional and un-intentional exposure settings as well as investigating peoples’ perception and other motivational factors related to sun protection in the German population.

A national representative study concerned with sun related behaviours and beliefs among Germans aged 14 years and older was conducted in 2007. The random telephone-based questionnaire investigated peoples’ sun exposure, sun protective behaviours, knowledge, attitudes, risk perception and other related factors. Data from a total of 1501 respondents were analysed. A theory-based model to explain sun protection and exposure behaviour was developed and tested in a structural equation approach.

Of the 1501 respondents, 15% frequently tanned either during a sun vacation or sunbathing (intentional exposure). Frequent exposure to the sun/ tanning during recreational hobbies or outdoor work (un-intentional exposure) was considerably higher (31%). There is some evidence to suggest that the subsequent sunprotection measures were used less for recreational hobbies or outdoor work than for sun vacation & sunbathing. Furthermore, the developed UV-model showed only a limited influence of motivational factors for sun protection and exposure behaviour. Risk perception, sun related knowledge, sun attitudes and protection self-efficacy showed only a marginal influence in all four situations. Sun protection intentions and protective planning showed a stable influence for sun protection.

It seems necessary to provide information on UV-risks and sun protective behaviour more for un-intentional sun exposure and activities rather than for intentional exposure. Future sun protection campaigns should focus more on accumulated sun exposure and every-day exposure situations. Furthermore it seems doubtful if further information particular on UV-risks would result in altered sun protection behaviour. Differrent communication strategies should be combined with individualised information and more intervention efforts integrating habitual learning behaviour.

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