Wie regulieren Berufsschüler ihren Lernprozess?

Eine empirische Untersuchung subjektiver Lernkonzepte und kognitiver Lernstrategien in der Teilzeitform der Berufsschule im Ausbildungsberuf Bürokaufmann/-frau

Köller, Charlotte

kassel university press, ISBN: 978-3-86219-216-8, 2012, 293 Pages

URN: urn:nbn:de:0002-32176

Zugl.: Kassel, Univ., Diss. 2012

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Content: This study examines inter-and intra-individual differences in the use of cognitive learning strategies while dealing with economic learning tasks and their relation to subjective
conceptions of learning as regulative instance on learning behavior.

The central research question "How do students of vocational school regulate their learning process?" is complemented by the question "What do you mean by »learning«?" to the student's perspective on their own learning and their view of "good" teaching. This allows conclusions referring to the possibilities of the student’s regulation under the perspective of self-regulated learning in school.

Theories of self-regulated learning form the theoretical context of this study with particular focus on the reflexive and metacognitive aspects of the models. Furthermore the subjective conceptions of learning provide an opportunity to understand learning as a subjective experienced construct. The idea of the own (successful) learning process at school serves as a basic prerequisite for self-regulated learning. As a third reference point, the theoretical conceptualizations of learning strategies are used to establish a connection between the selfregulated learning on the one hand and the subjective conceptions of learning on the other hand.

The empirical study was attended to 28 students of vocational schools who were at the beginning of their training. To examine the activity near learning strategies an economic task was used, where a simulated situation for a management decision is described. It addressed economic issues in material management. The task, which was performed in learning partnerships, should conduce to make the used strategies visible when students are faced with a (didactically designed) problem. This phase of work was recorded by video camera. The communicative involvement with the task is – in contrast to the internal running processes – observable.

Analyzing the learning activities in interaction with the other learners provides access to the learning strategies of learners. The video data were analyzed using techniques of qualitative content analysis according to Mayring (2003). The idea using tasks as analytical tools for the learning process of students is based on the finding that learning strategies are aimed at managing problems thus can be detected in the context of concrete tasks.

After completion, the students were interviewed about their approach to the task. The students were asked to evaluate their individual behavior in the task. Thereby the survey is
extended by the subjective perspective of the students. In the analysis of statements - by using techniques of the Grounded Theory – basic elements of individual beliefs of learning became apparent and allowed conclusions about the subjective conceptions of learning.

A total of four different subjective conceptions of learning regarding to the student’s demand on teaching and learning in vocational education are characterized. These can be
differentiated by the three dimensions of "learning activities", "temporal scope" and "roles". However, in this survey, there were hardly any correlations between the learning strategies and the subjective conceptions of learning. No learning conception-related strategy profiles were visible. This is a surprising result, since the execution of a learning activity, requires an understanding or an idea of the learning activity. Noticeable is the dominance of the more functional use of learning strategies.

Certainly metacognitive strategies were used at the end of the task to examine whether the task could be considered closed. However, few regulatory strategies were applied even though a regulation would have been necessary because of the evaluation.

From my perspective research is needed to clarify, how far learning strategies can be conceptualized as a stable, content-independent construct. Another problem concerning the theoretical foundations of subjective conceptions of learning is that they are not integrated into theoretical models of teaching and learning research, specifically in models of selfregulated learning. Against the background of the research results, it is necessary to elaborate the models of self-regulated learning on the student's perspective based on theoretically sound and empirically verified approaches.

Finally, it can be concluded that this empirical study provides starting points for further studies, which can be integrated in teaching methodology. Although the present study only briefly touches the didactic aspect. The results of the study show that learning strategies and subjective conceptions of learning have always be tied to a specific context in order to get at reliable results.

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